Thyroid is a gland in our human body and its vitiation in the physiology is now a days very common ailment, in particular amongst the ladies. Disease of Thyroid are evident in present day world due to impurity in blood and which in turn is triggered due to irregular dietary and lifestyle regimen. Once the vitiation in cellular physiology of thyroid is activated, it then causes hormonal imbalance and a range of symptoms like sudden weight gain / loss, lack of appetite, unexplained weakness and in particular feeling not fresh in morning on waking up, reduced social behavior due to impact on mind as well, loss of cheerfullness, sudden decreased / increased metabolic activity, unexplained high pulse rate with palpitation etc.
To understand the diseases concerning the thyroid gland, we also need to have a look at concepts of metabolism and basal metabolic rate as these are directly related with the flow / activation of thyroid hormone.
In Ayurveda, thyroid disorders, including conditions like hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, are perceived as disruptions in the balance of the body’s doshas—Vata, Pitta, and Kapha—alongside disturbances in the functioning of the thyroid gland. Ayurveda recognizes the thyroid as a vital energy center associated with the throat and the Vishuddha chakra.
Thyroid disorders are often linked to imbalances in the Vata and Pitta doshas. Hypothyroidism, characterized by an underactive thyroid, is viewed as a manifestation of aggravated Kapha, leading to sluggishness and a decrease in metabolic functions. Hyperthyroidism, marked by an overactive thyroid, is associated with elevated Pitta, resulting in increased metabolic activity and potential inflammation.
Metabolism : It is best explained as a series of complex processes governed in our cellular physiology by which various components of our body work together to converts food, water, and oxygen into tissue, energy, and waste products. Any vitiation in any part breaks this chain and results in the imbalance of the concerned tissue. The process of metabolism is a continuous process which goes on unabated and each cell of body is able to thrive only because of the metabolism. If we have to explain in more simpler terms, metabolism comprises the breaking down of complex substances into simpler parts which can be used by the target cells, and their shuffling / recombination into countless new substances that forms the basis of our cellular physiology. For example, the complex carbohydrates are broken down by enzymes / acids by chain of metabolism and thereafter converted into glucose / fructose / sucrose which are then used by cells for their respective predefined purposes. Also the process of metabolism is done through smooth functioning of two more processes which we refer as anabolism and catabolism in medical terminology. Anabolism is explained as the constructive chemical / physical process by which food materials are adapted for the basic use of the end tissues; while catabolism is explained as the destructive process by which energy is produced during the breaking down of tissues into waste products. So if there is any vitiation in the cellular physiology of thyroid gland, the flow / activation too gets hampered and it results in the imbalance of thyroid hormone affecting both anabolism and catabolism.
Basal Metabolic Rate: In medical terminology, its referred as BMR and its the rate at which energy is consumed in the cells while an individual is in resting stage. Its measured by calculating the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged during breathing and the very concept of health is all governed by BMR. if Basal metabolic rate of any individual is healthy, the person too is defined as healthy.
In Ayurveda medical science, if we analyze the anatomical perspective then thyroid gland is located near Vishuddi Chakra (in the throat area) and is primarily made up of Pitta and Kapha Doshas. The thyroid granthi is the centre of fire energy (Agni) and its main functions are to stimulate the mind and physical growth, control the secretion of activity hormones, balance the process of metabolism, and control basically all cellular bodily functions. The thyroid gland is a very sensitive gland in nature and it responds very swiftly towards any responses with regards to stimuli and to stress.